ADSORPTION AS A BASIS OF PROTECTIVE ACTION OF FILTERS-ADSORBER
This article analyzes the regulatory documents on determination of protective action time of gas filters and FILTERS-ADSORBER, which are designed for individual and collective protection. The current absence of a current regulatory document in Ukraine is indicated according to which protective action time of filters is determined, adds relevance in the implementation of the method of determining this filter characteristic. The theoretical aspects of effect of absorbing capacity of filters are highlighted, the fundamental principles of adsorption are linked with the time of protective action time of filters against hazardous chemicals. The process of adsorption on the surface and formation of sorption layers in case of polymolecular adsorption is schematically shown, as described by the BET theory. It is indicated that protective action time on the direct depends on particular case of adsorption - chemisorption. The types of adsorption isotherms are considered, they are characterized and the Langmuir and BET equations are given. The protective action of filter as a phenomena of chemisorption on the surface of sorbent is described by the Langmuir isotherm, in particular, parts I and II. When determining protective action time the monomolecular adsorption of hazardous chemical substance occurs with formation of a chemical bond with the surface. The chemical bond is formed from the impregnated catalyst due to the redistribution of electrons. Solutions of metal salts are used as a catalyst, and the metal ion itself acts as an active center during the process of chemisorption. The role of adsorption kinetics in the implementation of sanitary cleaning of gas from the pollutant in the practical plane is considered. The possibility of calculating the amount of a chemical that a sorbent can absorb is shown by constructing an adsorption isotherm of a standard substance and a pollutant adsorption working line. Adsorption isotherm was captured for adsorbent from FG-130 FPK 95 filter on KELVIN 1042 sorptometr.