ORGANIZATION OF MEASURES ON EVACUATION IN THE CASE OF THREAT AND CONDUCT OF MILITARY OPERATIONS. PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF THEIR DECISION
Protection of the population from the negative impact of the consequences of man-made, natural and military emergencies is a priority task of all governmental authorities, including local authorities, as well as heads of economic objects, regardless of ownership forms. The solution of this issue requires an integrated approach, which involves the implementation of a number of measures for the creation of protective structures, providing the population with personal protective equipment, preparing population for emergencies, timely alert and informing about the threat or emergency, evacuation of the population and other measures. One of the main ways of protecting the population in the case of an immediate threat to life and causing damage to the population health remains timely, organized by the removal the population from the zones of possible influence of negative factors of emergency of man-made, natural or military character and placing it outside of the zones of action the damaging factors of the sources of emergency, that is, their evacuation. At the same time, this method is quite complicated, requiring careful preparation of all authorities and the serious training of all citizens in the conduct of evacuation. The practice of organizing and conducting evacuation of the population from the anti-terrorist operation (ATO) zone in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions has revealed a number of problems on this issue.
The article provides an analysis and defines the problems of the organization of protection of the population at the threat and occurrence of emergencies caused by the use of weapons, including measures on population evacuation from areas of warfare to safe areas. Approaches to organizing and conducting mass evacuation in NATO member states are considered. The analysis of requirements established in Ukraine for the evacuation of the population and the experience of their practical implementation at the beginning and during the military conflict in eastern Ukraine, as well as caused by explosions in ammunition depots, was carried out. The results of the analysis identified the problems that arose during the evacuation of the population and suggested ways to solve them